By Abdulrahman Yarali
From the transition of analog to electronic communique in addition to seamless mobility and excessive computing energy of small hand held units, the instant communications has noticeable large alterations resulting in the combination of a number of telecommunication networks, units and prone over final 30 years. the speed of this development and progress has elevated quite long ago decade simply because humans not use their units and networks for voice basically, yet call for package deal contents reminiscent of information download/streaming, HDTV, HD video , 3D video conferencing with larger potency, seamless connectivity, intelligence, reliability and higher consumer adventure. even though the demanding situations dealing with carrier services and telecommunication businesses fluctuate via product, zone, industry measurement, and their parts of focus yet time to marketplace, effective usage in their resources and profit enlargement, have impacted considerably how one can deal with and behavior their enterprise whereas conserving adequate margin.
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Extra resources for 4G & Beyond. The Convergence of Networks, Devices, and Services
All the complications with Wi-Fi network integration is that it is a separate network and its performance (uplink and downlink, Figure 9b) degrade with increase of number of users. Figure 9b shows an analysis of one small LTE cell compare to WLAN AP . As can be seen in the included figures, LTE small Cell/HetNets provide significant capacity improvement critical for addressing the fast growing wireless data demands. The Road Towards Densified and HetNet Gigabit Wireless Networks 31 Throughput in both directions remains constant regardless of the number of users.
LTE-U (LTE in Unlicensed band) protocol enables data offload initially in the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) band and allows seamless flow of data across licensed and unlicensed in a single core network. Below is a possible transition path for an operator starting with their 2G (GSM, CDMA) network . • • • For 2G offloading, network selection is done by a client application, and the IP traffic is routed through the wireline and direct connection to internet, coupled with common authentication architecture.
An alternative VHD taxonomy can be found in , and a related revision work more focused on VHD over LTE-Advanced is available in . In  is discussed comprehensively the convergence of IMT-Advanced access networks (LTE, Wimax) including ITU-R requirements, such as, new frame structure, spectrum operation and, the demand growth on mobile data. Spectral efficiency of cellular networks is thoroughly investigated in  to enhance the network performance. They discuss LTE scenarios using a deployment strategy that coordinates the interference and balances the load among the network nodes.
4G & Beyond. The Convergence of Networks, Devices, and Services by Abdulrahman Yarali