By James H. Green
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Unless precautions are taken, an excessive amount of the transmit signal radiates from the source and is coupled into the receive path of its own circuit or others in the cable. This path is known as near-end crosstalk (NEXT). Crosstalk is also possible at the far end of the circuit, but, as we have seen, the receive signal level is attenuated compared to the transmit level, so the coupling from the receive pair into the transmit pair is a minor concern. The best way to eliminate NEXT is by separation.
The IP address, on the other hand, can easily change. If the station moves from one segment to another, for example, the IP address changes, perhaps by as little as one digit. In addition, IP addresses are often assigned only as long as the computer is active. Most networks use a protocol known as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to assign IP addresses to station as they boot up. A protocol known as Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) links IP addresses with the corresponding MAC addresses.
The two channels are combined, fed into a digital-to-analog converter, and transmitted. A simple filter separates voice and data. Hybrids and echo cancelers are not needed with CAP systems because the two directions of transmission are separate. The Digital Subscriber Line Access Technology 57 modems use adaptive equalization to overcome, to some degree, the effects of bridged tap, gauge changes, and splices. CAP is a proprietary protocol, but despite its lack of standard status, it has a large following.
Access technologies : DSL and cable by James H. Green