By G. Martin
Focusing on person political thinkers and starting with indigenous African political inspiration, the e-book successively examines African nationalism, African socialism, populism and Marxism, Africanism and pan-Africanism, concluding with modern views on democracy, improvement and the African state.
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18 An important development was the emergence and growth of a local clerical class (ulama) in the main political and commercial towns such as Jenne, Th e I n f lu e n c e o f I s l a m i c Va lu e s a n d I d e a s 27 Timbuktu, and Gao. Until the sixteenth century, the majority of Muslim scholars in Jenne and Timbuktu—many of them world-renowned experts in Islamic science—were Sudanese, who also held senior public offices. Among the most prominent Timbuktu scholars specializing in jurisprudence, philosophy, and theology were Mahmud ben Omar Aqit (1463–1548), Muhammad Bagayokho (1523–94) and his brother Ahmad, Mahmud Kati, and Ahmed Baba (d.
In addition, a well-defended fortress (tata) headed by a military commander was built in each province. After his death in 1864, ‘Umar was succeeded by his son Ahmadu Sheiku (1864–93), who consolidated the empire and established its capital in Segu. As central power began to disintegrate, the empire progressively split into a number of autonomous provinces under various sons and nephews of ‘Umar who paid titular allegiance to Ahmadu. 50 The Islamic Theocratic States and Indigenous Beliefs and Institutions in the Western Sudan The nineteenth-century Islamic revival in the Western Sudan generally took the form of a militant, messianic movement in which a prominent Fulani Muslim cleric/theologian is invested by the highest religious authority with the duty to wage a holy war (jihad) against the “infidels” and establish a Th e I n f lu e n c e o f I s l a m i c Va lu e s a n d I d e a s 39 centralized theocratic state ruled by shari’a law.
The administration of justice was highly decentralized, and each district had a governmentappointed judge (cadi). In 1844, Sheiku Ahmadu’s son, Ahmadu Sheiku, succeeded his father, and under his austere leadership, the Dina continued to prosper under Islamic faith and law. 49 The Segu Tukulor Empire of al-Haji ‘Umar Tall At one and the same time Muslim cleric, theologian, prophet, and statesman, al-Haji ‘Umar Tall—who hailed from Fuuta Tooro—built, over a 12-year period (1852–64), a sprawling empire extending from the middle Senegal river to the Niger Bend.
African Political Thought by G. Martin